【托福阅读】掌握这几点,新托福阅读总结题就不是问题

作者:广州朗阁老师来源:广州朗阁时间:2019-08-20 13:34:56.593

摘要:掌握这几点,新托福阅读总结题就不是问题

 

每每*到托福阅读就会有不少考托福的小伙伴们对我抱怨*后一道总结题(prose summary)读不懂,做不对,做不完这“三不交响曲”。这道题几乎是所有同学的硬伤,老师们也一直在为这个题苦苦摸索,探索可以帮助学生快速解决这题的良方。那么在接下来的文章中,我会就总结题的快速解题方法展开论述。

首先我们需要知道所有的总结题题目都是由两部分组成的:题干+介绍句。

An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answers that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

以上是题干。这个题的题干在每篇TPO中都是一样的,所以我们只需要看一次了解一下这个题的相关信息,以后就可以一劳永逸了。

首先这个题干中*到了这道题目2分。它的给分标准是错一个扣1分。言外之意就是从6个中选择3个,3个全部选对,可以获得2分。对了2个就是1分,对1个没有分。有些同学认为这种给分方法不公平,明明做对了一个为什么会不得分?但是笔者认为这往往从另一个方面*它是非常公平的。大家可以想想我们的目标是从6个中选3个,你对了1个*什么?这往往说明这个题做的非常糟糕,我们没读懂,对这篇文章的了解和把握上面是有很大的问题的,所以此时老外会认为水平非常low, 所以就直接不给分。出国考试中的评分通常是这样的,如果英语水平非常高,老外允许你错1个或者2个还是给满分,但是如果水平非常低就会直接打压。在这个给分上面我们就不过分的争议了,毕竟木已成舟。我们只需要知道这个评分规则,尽力去拿*。

其次题干中说到在题干下面会有一个对全文总结的介绍句给出。但凡是研究过总结题的朋友都应该知道这个introductory sentence不一定是对全文的总结,有可能是对段落的总结。接下来我们来看几个例子。

An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the paragraph:

Eg. Deer in the Puget Sound area eat a wide variety of foods and migrate seasonally to hunt for food.(摘自 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)

Eg. Plants need to absorb certain minerals from the soil in adequate quantities for normal growth and development.(摘自 Minerals and Plants)

Eg. Together, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia make up the described as the Pacific islands, or Oceania.(摘自 The Origin of the Pacific Island People)

An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage:

Eg. There are several possible explanations why people cannot easily remember their early childhoods.(摘自 Infantile Amnesia)

Eg. Researchers use a number of techniques to determine how infants respond to changes in their environment.(摘自 Methods of Studying Infant Perception)

Eg. Advertisers sometimes use strategies that can mislead children.(摘自Children and Advertising)

为什么会把这个introductory sentence的不同类别列举出来?也许很多同学会问,因为这个会直接影响后面的解题方法。

笔者*供解答这道题目的两种方法:

1. 根据介绍句直接做题:

根据介绍句直接做题这种方法有一个前*,就是此时介绍句是对全文的总结。但是此时同学们可能问题又来了,我怎么知道这句话是对全文总结还是对于段落的总结?因为总结题永远都是处于*后一题,所以当有了前面那么多题目的铺垫,我相信看到一句话是可以判断出这句话是对全文总结还是对段落总结的。

正确选项特征:

1). 与介绍句中所讨论话题一致

2). 正确选项论述高度相似

因为只看介绍句,所以此时我们要结合错误选项的特征一起考虑某个陈述是否正确。题干中也说了minor ideas和ideas that not presented in the passage是错误选项。细节和信息错误不可以入选。信息错误很好判断,一般在前面的题目中会留下线索。但是细节信息就不是很好判断。

细节信息的特征:

1). 例子

举的例子肯定是为了*前面的观点,所以如果选项中看到文中*到的某个例子肯定是细节。

Eg. Studies show that misleading tactics are used most often in commercials for breakfast cereals, with toy commercials using such tactics only slightly less frequently.(摘自 Children and Advertising)

...For example, the claim that breakfast cereal has a health benefit may be accompanied by the disclaimer "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast." ...(摘自 Children and Advertising)

Eg. Isotopes of a given element have exactly the same physical properties, but their chemical properties are slightly different.(摘自 Development of the Periodic Table)

...For example, tellurium comes before iodine in the periodic table, even though its atomic mass is slightly greater. Such anomalies are due to the relative abundance of the "isotopes" or varieties of each element. All the isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in their number of neutrons, and hence in their atomic mass.

2). 一类中的一种

所谓一类中的一种指的是原文是对一个大范围的描述,而选项是缩小范围对其进行论述。Eg. 小明喜欢吃苹果,香蕉,梨。如果选项说小明只喜欢吃苹果,这就是错误的,因为这就是缩小范围,只是我原文所述中的一种。

而如果选项说小明喜欢吃水果,这个选项则是对的,因为它对原文进行了概括。

通读选项和介绍句知道选项中的smile是facial expression中的一种,pleasant feelings是emotion中的一种,所以这个选项也偏细节。

Eg. The number and sophistication of the architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacan indicate the existence of centralized planning and control.

Teotihuacan may have developed its own specific local religion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by the city’s great prsperity.

As a result of its large number of religious shrines, by the first century A.D., Teotihuacan became the most influential religious center in all of Mesoamerica.

上面这个题是一个非常好的例子。选项1非常宏观从architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious角度来讨论这个城市崛起的原因。但是选项2仅从specific local religion讨论,选项3*到religious shrines范围更小。所以只有选项1是符合对原文总结的,选项2 & 3都是细节。

3). 某个人观点

通常情况下个人观点也是为了说明文章中的主题,所以个人观点也是为了佐证其它论点,因此个人观点也是细节。

Eg. Ekman argued that the ability to accurately recognize the emotional content of facial expressions was valuable for human beings.

*种方法直接通过介绍句做题就是直接看introductory sentence, 并且结合错误选项去排除,用其中一篇文章详细说明。

Eg. The levels of education, the acquisition of wealth, and occupational prestige determine social status in the United States.(摘自 Layers of Social Class)

介绍句里面包括education level & wealth & occupational prestige和social status, 同时还是前者决定后者。回顾上文所*到的正确选项特征,1). 必须和介绍句讨论话题保持一致;2). 正确选项论述高度相似。所以正确的选项就不是很难判断了。

People who have made their money more recently tend not to be accepted by those who have inherited their wealth from family holdings.

1、里面所讨论的是一批人不被另外一批人所接受,介绍句说的是某某决定社会地位,所以话题不一致,直接排除。

 The lower class includes working people with low income and a new underclass of people who are dependent on welfare or engage in crime.

2、里面*到lower class对应social status, *到people with low income, people who are dependent on welfare or engage in crime, 概括一下就是the acquisition of wealth, 所以2同时*到了介绍句里面的信息,先保留,因为此时我们没有看原文,不要太武断地直接选取或者排除。

The upper class tends to acquire wealth through inheritance, whereas the upper middle class has a high income that they earn their professions.

3、里面*到upper class对应social status, *到acquire wealth through inheritance & earn their professions, 这是说the acquisition of wealth。所以2和3里面在说一件事,要选都选,要排除都排除。

Although the lifestyle of the upper middle class is the al for majority, it is difficult for many people to mainta

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